A Preliminary Note
Most Ancient Days -- Preface
Chapter 1 -- The Number of the Years: chronology from Adam to Saul
Chapter 2 -- The Age of Evil Imagining: the Confusion and Scatter at Babel
Chapter 3 -- The Generations of the Sons of Noah: the Tabel of Nations
Chapter 4 -- Cities of the Twin Rivers: Shinar from Babel to Sodom
Chapter 5 -- Profane Fables: Egyptian historiagraphy and the standard paradigm
Chapter 6 -- Kings of the Nile: Egypt from Babel to Sodom

Chapter 7 -- Stones of Sumer: Jemdet Nasr and "Early Dynastic"

Chapter 8 -- Sands of Egypt: Dyanasty XIIa & IIa

Chapters 9 & 10 (The Age of Base Metal: The Middle Bronze Age) -- Expanded and presented here.

Chapter 11 -- Joseph Over the House of Pharaoh: Egypt in the 18th century

Chapter 12 -- The Pharaoh Who Knew Not Joseph: The Old Kingdom to the Exodus

Chapter 13 -- Moses Prince of Egypt: Dynasty XIII and the "First Intermediate Period"

Chapter 14 -- Into the Hands of the Living God: the Ten Plagues of Egypt

Chapter 3 -- The Generations of the Sons of Noah: the Table of Nations

Chapter 3

The Generations of the Sons of Noah:

the Table of Nations

These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by them were the nations divided in the earth after the Flood.

— Gen 10:32

As we have observed, the Book of Genesis — like the Bible itself — is a library, compiled into one book by Moses, who used the records of various prophets. Presumably the earliest books — of the Creation, Adam, and Noah — were pictographic, as suggested by the tele­graphic style of the narrative. "The Histo­ry of Shem", which extends from Gen 10:2 until Gen 11:10a, con­sists of the descendants of Noah to the fifth genera­tion, combined with the account of the rebellion, confu­sion and scattering at Babel, and with the exploits of Nimrod — together they make a single narrative.

In Gen 10, the genealogy of Japheth is carried only to his grandchildren (contempo­raries of Shelah), and of Ham only to his great-grandchild (Philis­tim, contemporary of Eber). Even the line of Shem is carried only to Peleg, his own great-great-grandchild. The peculiar phrase in Gen 10:21, calling Shem the father of all the children of Eber”, tells us that Eber was a prominent figure when this portion was written — 6 generations before Abraham, and, of course, the original Hebrew. Incidentally, of the first 20 patriarchs, from Adam to Abraham, Eber was the last to die (1887 bc — Shem lived until 1916 bc).In terms of historiography, aside from the invention of languages, the reason that Shem stops his Table at Peleg is that he could write only of those races which remained in the Near East for some time after the Confusion. This prophet could not keep tabs on the tribes and clans — the nations — which left the Near East immediately after the Confusion, and the record reflects this limit.

Likewise, Moses was not looking into a crystal ball when he compiled the Book of Genesis. He was using the historically precise records of his ancestors. Moses was perhaps 15 when his grandfather Kohath died; Kohath was perhaps 59 when Joseph died; Joseph was 29 when Isaac died, Isaac was 50 when Shem died, Shem was 98 when Methuselah died; Methuselah was 57 when Adam died. There is a direct, person-to-person connection between Moses and Adam, with only six intermediaries. As a competent historian, Moses (like Shem before him) did not just suppose what might have happened — he recorded only what he knew for certain from the historical record, which had been handed down in his family since the beginning.

Like all primary historical documents of any worth, the sources which Moses used were not open-ended, but rather referred to precise times and events. When Moses lists his own ancestry, in Gen 11, the record becomes much more complete, for the obvious reason that he had the detailed genealogy in front of him. Shem did not record those families which left immediately after the Con­fusion, and much information regarding the ancestry of other nations was not available to Moses.

So where are the Chinese in Genesis? — or American Indians or Australian Abori­gi­nes? They were toiling in the clay of Sumer, building a Tower — as were my ancestors, and yours. But it is an ignoble race which does not remember its heritage. The Bible goes a long way in giving us our lineage, but the names are obscure to us, and seem not even to be relevant. This is, however, the seeming of ignorance, and once we identify the patri­archs, and link them to the peoples of the modern world, the picture comes alive.

In this chapter, I will summarize the historical data taken from the archives of disparate nations — gathered in large part by Bill Cooper. It is assumed that, aside from the line of Arphaxad, all the listed grandchildren to great-great-grandchildren of Noah were the founders of different nations and languages. Shem and Arphaxad are the patriarchs of the closely related Semitic languages, which I have suggested are degenerate forms of the Adamic language. As for the patriarchs descended from Ham and Japheth, they are the direct linguistic ancestors of the speakers of all the tongues of ancient Europe, East Asia, Africa, Australia, the Americas, the various islands — even of such orphans as Basque or Sumerian or Elamite, unrelated to any other known language.

For example, in the following outline you will notice that some of the line of Ham settled in southern Arabia, around what is now Yemen. The Arabian penin­sula is now almost complete­ly Arabic — but this is due to the fact that the Moslems outlawed any other languages. During the more than 28 centuries between Cush and Mohammed, there was untold mixing and migrating on this peninsula — which until the Exodus catastrophe and the end of the Ice Age, was fertile grassland. The original area in which some primal group settled could have been repopulated many times, with only the city or regional name remaining the same, while the race and language changed. So the aborigi­nal, the "auto­chthonic" popula­tions moved on, to Africa, or East Asia, or the Americas. Where are the Chinese, then, in the Table of Nations? I have an increasingly strong notion that they were descended from one of the son's of Cush, specifically, the Sinites.

New languages were formed from the melding of others — this is how English came about. Old language groups moved on or became assimilated — this is what is said to have happened with the "Hittites", as we shall see in The Days of Brass and Iron, the second volume of this reconstruc­tion. And consider the Gypsies, who remain a distinct people, although they have no native language (they originated as Cushites in India, and migrated to Egypt during the New Kingdom, whence they derived their name: Gypsy = Egypt = Copt). It is the nature of intelligence to separate, and of randomness to mix. The origin of linguistics, in the Confusion, was intelligent, planned by God. The history of linguistics, in the scat­ter­ing, was ultimately random (from a human viewpoint), depending on the happenstance of politics and environment. The upshot is that we can reproduce the original milieu after the Confusion only to a limited degree. After that, we are in the dark.

Finally, in the following outline of the Table, only the [formating lost] large names are completely reliable, since they are taken from the Bible. The foreign names of the nations are given in emphasized type [lost], and the sources are in parentheses. Non-bibli­cal informa­tion, in terms of the location of the various nations, has been taken from the ancient records and genealogies which pagan nations preserved, and these were written many centuries after the scattering, so may not represent original settlements. Also, we may suppose that there was some variable degree of corruption — but we may also suppose that the information is, overall, worthwhile. For example, the Welsh historian Nen­nius gives the descent of many western peoples, which otherwise would be lost to us; modernist scholars dismiss his data as invention, but this is the result of their bias, rather than of scholar­ly integrity. Outline form is generally followed, but sometimes in the subpoints I have taken shortcuts.

[FORMATTING PROBLEMS INVALIDATE THE OUTLINING LAYOUT. The symbol "->" is meant to signify that the lineage continues to the next name or generation, father to son or to descendants. The symbol "///" is meant to signify that the lineage stops at that point]

Table of Nations

Noah ->

Shem — all "Semites" ->

Arphaxad — Chaldeans: first settlement near Nineveh (early farming village Arpachiya), later located in Chaldea (arp-keshed was border regions of Chaldea in southern Mesopotamia, now Iraq); Arrapi­chitis (Ptolemy) or Arphixitis, on Great Zab NE of Nineveh; Nuzi texts give name as Arip-hurra, or Arraphu (Akk); the Kaldu (Assyrian) were astrologers ->

Shelah (Sala in Josephus) ->

Eber — Heber, all descendants are ‛Heb­rews’: ->

Joktan — Yaqtan (Arabic), 13 tribes of southern Arabia; town Jectan near Mecca; father of ‛pure’ Arabs, not Hamitic Musta 'rabs ("pretend Arabs"; ‛arab’ from Hebrew ereb, "mixed multitude"): ->

Almodad ("the Agitator", al-Morad tribe), (b) Sheleph (pre-Islamic Salif tribe in Yemen, capi­tal was 60 miles due north of San'a). (c) Hazarmaveth (hdrmt or hdrmwt, "town of death"; one of 4 main tribes in Strabo's day; wide plateau and narrow, arid coast of S Arabia, still called "Hadramaut"). (d) Jerah (Yarki of Ashurbanipal; town, Jerakon Kome, on Mara coast). (e) Hadoram (town Hurarina of Ashurbanipal, near Yarki). (f) Uzal (Azal [A.], Azalla [Assyr], ancient San'a of Yemen). (g) Diklah (known to Akk., Aramaic, Assyr.; gave name to Tigris; around Kuwait). (h) Obal (Yemen). (i) Abimael (southern Arabia). (j) Sheba (also the name of a son of Abraham, and grandson of Cush). (k) Ophir (SW Arabia), or by Yemen. (l) Havilah (south­western-most Arabia, into Af­rica in city of Aualis [modern Zeila], northern Arabia in Strabo's day; called Khaulotaei or Euilat, spoke Midian dialect; also name of son of Cush). (m) Jobab (Iabibi [Akk]), near Mecca. ///

Pelegpulukku (Akk, "dividing with bor­ders"), ancient city Phalgu at junction between Eu­phrates and Chaboras: -> RueRa'ilu, island in Euphrates S of Anatolia: -> Serug — (Akk) dis­trict Sarugi, west of Haran; land of Syria: -> Nahor — town, Babylonian and Mari texts, and Ashurbanipal: -> Terah — idolater (Joshua 24:2), settled in Haran, town nearby called by As­syrians Turahi; linked to moon-god, teraphim: -> fifth generation:

Nahor ///

Haran — died in Ur; center of moon-cult, as was Ur ->

LotDead Sea always called Sea of Lot by Arabs ->

MoabMu'abu (Akk), M-'-b (Egy); south of Dead Sea. ///

Benammi — Ammonites, bit-Amma-na-aia (Assyr); capital same as modern Amman; lands taken by Nabataeans in 1st century bc; listed in Ugarit texts and Nimrud. ///

Abrahamname known in Babylon as Abi-ramu, and from (later) Ebla tablets as Abarama (where Sarai is also known): ->

Isaac ->

Jacob — Israel. ///

Ishmael — name known from Hammurabi texts: ->

Nebaioth —
; S of Dead Sea, Nabat (Chaldean), b) Kedar — Qedar, NW Arabia, fought Nebu. II c. 599 bc, cf. Jer 49:28; ancestor of Mohammed; c) Adbeel — Idibuiu (Akk), NW Arabia, Tiglath-Pileser [T-P] III conq. and used against Egypt; d) Mibsam — Mishma, near Tema; e) Dumah — Idumaeans, Addammatu (Akk and Assyr), conq. by Nabonidus; f) Massa — Mas'a (Assyr), NE of Dumah; g) HadadHaddu (Akk), pagan god; h) Tema — Taima', 70 miles NE of Dedan; i) Jetur — Ituraeans, known as robbers by Rome; j) Naphish; k) Kedemah — in wilder­ness of Kedemoth. ///

Zimran — west of Mecca; Ptole­my calls them Zabram. ///

Jokshan — northern Arabia ->

Shebareplaced Hamitic Sheba. ///

Dedan — replaced Hamitic Dedan; town Daidan mentioned by Nabonidus king of Bab., ex­iled at Tema to the east); three sons: Asshurim (traveling merchants), Letushim (tinkers) & Leummim (island dwell­ers). ///

Medannorthern Arabian tribes; town of Madan known to T-P III as Badan, west of Tema. ///

Midian — tribe of Arabs, spoke Hawil dialect; Modiana (Ptolemy), Madyan (Ara­bian city) ->

Ephah — northwest Arabia, T-P III called them Hayapa; last reference by Sargon II, c. 715; b) Epher — Apparu (Assyr), city of Ghifar near Medina; c) Henoch — Kenites, coppersmiths, SW of Gulf of Aqaba; d) Abidah — in Yemen; e) Eldaah — in Yemen. ///

Ishbak — east of Canaan. ///

Shuah — Shuites, Suhu (Assyr); south of Carchemish, east of Euphrates; Bildad, councilor of Job. ///


Lud — Lydians of Asia Minor, Ludim, Ludu (Assyr­ian / Akkadian), Laud (Josephus); archers, Indo-European lan­guage; not a "semitic language". Egyptians monuments place Luden by Mesopo­tamia, perhaps displaced by Assyrians to Asia Minor. Trad says Atys father of Lydus (Lydians), Mysus (Mysians) and Car (Carrians). Lydian King Croesus defeated by Cyrus the Great (540 bc). ///

Elamnortheast Persian Gulf; Elamtu (Babylon), Elymais (Greek), Elymaei (Romans), Haltamti (Elamite), Huju, Huz (Persian), Khuzistan (Iran); incomprehensible, non-"semitic" language. ///

Asshur — Assyrians. ///

Aram — Aramu (Akk), Syrians (Gr); Aram-naharaim: "Aram of the Two Rivers" = "Mesopotamia"; E of Ti­gris in T-P I's time, in all Mesopota­mia by T-P III's time, then Syria; Abraham's family, Laban, around Haran, later states include Zobah, Maachah, Geshur, Damascus ->

Uz — northern Arabian desert; founded Trachonitis and Damascus (Jos.); land of Job. ///


Hul — north of Sea of Galilee, named Lake Huleh (Ul, Armenians, in Jos.; by Waters of Merom); Hurrians? — r = l. ///

Gether — south of Damascus; Gather, latter Bactrians (Jos.), camel breeders; Aryan? ///

Mash — Meshech in 1Chr 1:17; Charax Spasini (Jos.); in Lebanon, Cappo­docians in Asia Minor; Mashu (Akk), Msh'r (Eg), Mishal. ///


CushKish in Mesopotamia, Nubia between the 1st and 3rd cataracts; Esarhaddon of Assyria became king of Muzur, Paturisi and Cush ->

Nimrod — Osiris/Tammuz; "father" of Gilgamesh/Horus; Sumerian? ///

Sebah — Sabaeans, harbor of Saba on west coast of Arabia. ///

Havilah — eastern central Arabia on Persian Gulf, land of Hawlan, Evilas (Josephus) ///

Sabta — eastern Arabia; modern Sabota; Sabateni, Messabathi (Pliny); Sabota capital of Hadramaut of S Arabia. ///

Raamah — near Ma'in, SW Arabia; Ragma (LXX); ancient inscriptions locate near Havilah, and east of Ophir; trade with Tyre ->

Shebasouth of Minaean kingdom (texts from 9th century bc); in land of Sabaeans in Yemen; Assyrians mention in 8th century bc; huge palace, complex irrigation, dam breached in 542 ad. ///

Dedan — Judadus, "a nation of the western Ethiopians" (Jos.); center in Al-ula, 70 miles SW of Taima; trade with Phoenicians. ///

Sabtecha — Sabactens in Yemen. ///

Mizraim — Egypt; Msrm in Ugaritic texts; Misri in Amarna; Musur (Assyr), Musri (Akk); Josephus tells of the Ethiopic War, which decimated the following seven: ->

Ludim — Lubu, Lybia, mercenaries, bowmen of Eg and Tyre (Is 66:19, Ezek 27:10, 30:5). ///

Anamim — Sargon II speaks of A-na-mi located next to Kaptara. ///

Pathrusim — Upper (S) Egypt, called Ptores, Pathros (Eg: "south") (Jer 44:15); Ezek 29:14 calls it original home of Egyptians; conquered by Esarhaddon. ///

Caphtorim — Crete, root of Aiguptos, "Egypt"; orig­inally in Egypt, not Crete; Kaptara (Assyr), 'kptr' (Uga­ritic); called Keftiu in Old Kingdom document c. 1800 bc / ≡2200; kftyw Egyptian name for Phoeni­cia (Amos 9:7); Cappadocians in Deut 2:24 (LXX); defeated in War. ///

Lehabim — 'rbw' (Eg), Lybians; destroyed by War. ///

Naphtuhim — Delta and W Egypt; early records call them Na-patoh-im and p't'mhw, Delta "marsh-dwell­ers"; destroyed in War. ///

Casluhim — destroyed in War; N Egypt ->

Philistim — originally from N Egypt; Pal­estine (Gr.), Palashtu and Pilisti (Assyr), disap­pear after Assyrian invasions; contemporary with Abra­ham — not People of the Sea, not from Crete. ///

CanaanKna'an (Gr., Phoen.), Kn'nw, Kyn'n.w (Egy), Kinnahu (Assyr), Kinnahu (Hurrian); did not original­ly speak semitic language ->

Zidon — coast of Canaan, Sidon; Phoenicians; Sidunu (Akk), Sa'idunu (Amarna). ///

Heth — Hittites; by Hebron in Abraham's time, and after Joshua; Khatti (Assyr); iron smelting; Ramses II fought, first recognized mass chariot battles at Kadesh. ///

Jebusite — mountains of Judah, inhabited Jebus, Jeru­salem, fell to David (1K 9:20). ///

Amorite — Martu (Sumer), Amurru (Akk); settled Canaan W of Dead Sea (Gen 14:7,13), at first nomadic, met by Abraham, in Mts by Exodus (Deut 1:44); 2 kingdoms from Arnon R. to Mt. Hermon (Deut 3:8), kings Sihon and Og defeated by Joshua (Num 21:34-35); aggressive; conq. Babylon; Hammurabi. ///

Girgashite — Gadarenes; 'grgs' (Ugarit), Karkisa, Qaraqisha (Hittite), Kirkash (Eg); east of Jordan between Galilee and Dead Sea. ///

Hivite — Heuaios (Gr), rel to Horites; in Shechem in Jacob's day (Gen 33:18, 34:2); moved from Canaan to hills of Lebanon in time of Joshua (Josh 9); By Mt. Hermon (Josh 11:3), Hamath (Jg 3:3); built for Solomon (1K 9:20-22). ///

Arkite — Irkata (Amarna), city of Arqa, N of Tripolis; "rebellious" under Shalmanezer II and T-P III. ///

Sinite — Usnu (Phoen.), Usana, Siannu (T-P III), Sn (Ugarit); near Arqa. ///

Arvadite — Arwada (Amarna), Aruda (Akk); island of Arvad, now Ruad north of Tripoli; north­most of Phoenician cities; skilled mari­ners, T-P I used ships of Arvad to sail Great Sea; island repelled Thutmose III; leading city with Tyre and Gebal/Byblos in T-P III's day. ///

Zemarite — Simirra (Assyr), Sumur (Eg); mod­ern Sumra, north of Tripoli; Sumur (early Amarna); often men­tioned by TP III and after. ///

Hamathite — Amatu (Akk), Hmtu (Eg), Hamat (A.), Epiphaneia (Gr.); on the Orontes, northmost boundary of David's kingdom (IIS 8:9, 1K 8:65, 2K 14:25); in 853 bc, defeat Assyrian host; conq. by Sargon II; site of Nebu. II's defeat of Egypt (605 bc) ///

Put — Punt (Eg), Putaya (Old Persian); Babylonian and Persian records say W of Egypt, touching Cyrene. ///

Descendants of Japheth

All of these peoples are known from Classical sources. The extra-biblical material is mostly from Nennius, who used pre-Christian sources.

Japheth — prominent figure in archaic mythology: Sanskrit god Pra-Japati (Father Japati, sun and Lord of Creation); Greek Iapetos, son of Uranus, present when his brother Cronus cas­trated their father, also son of heaven and earth, also son of Prometheus and Asia, also father of many nations); Roman Iu-Pater, "Jove-father" / Jupiter; worshipped in Cilicia, which is associated with the Peoples of the Sea; Saxons, Sceaf? ->

Gomer — Cimmerians, Gimirraya (Assyr), Kimmerioi (Gr): Homer reports they were N of Black Sea; on Caspi­an; driven away by Elamites; they moved S from Caucasus homeland into Asia, but Esarhad­don defeated the Gimirrai (c. 670's), and they turned west into Asia Minor, settled in Cappadocia. Ashurbani­pal speaks of the Cimmerian king Gugu's invasion of Lydia c. 660 bc; Lydian king Gyges killed in battle against them, but successor Alyates expelled them. Associated during Exile with the far north (Eze 38:6); Josephus says Galatians or Gall (Gr) ->

Ashchenaz — Scythians (Herodotus); out of Russia, Kurgans; (original­ly?) in Armenia, Askuza, Ashguzai, Ishkuzai (Assyr), ally of Mannai "Ararat" against Assyria in 600's bc (noted in Jer 51:27); settled in Bythinia and Pontus (S coast of Black Sea); Lake Ascanius, land of Ascania; Homer reports prince of Mysia and Phrygia named "Ascanios"; Rheginians (Josephus); Germanic ("Asche­na­zi" Jews are Ger­man); (Welsh Nennius says Scythians from Magog, Gomer's brother — different racial types). ///

Riphath — Riphean Mountain range, northmost border of the world; Riphaei (Pliny), Riphaces (Mello), Piphlataei (Solinus), Paphlogonians (Josephus), ancient Roman province on S coast of Black Sea. Perhaps Rebas R. in Bithynia. ///

Togarmah — Phrygians (Gr, Jos.), Thrugramma (Jos.); first in Armenia: forefather of Armenians is Haik son of Thorgom; later at Tegarama be­tween Carchemish and Haran, which was invaded by "enemies from Isuwa" beyond the Euphrates (9th / ↕14th cent., Hittite); horsemen, Ezek 27:14, traded with Tyre Ezek 38:6; capital Til-gari-manu in Kammanu (Hit: Tegarama), next to Tabal, 30 miles E of Gurun Turkey), destroyed and transported 695 bc. ///

[ Gauls.]

[ ?? -> Tutan -> Gawndan Mew-wan -> Jenku Dawvu -> Gangen Newang -> Seageweng -> 11 Miautso tribes settled in China.] ///

Madai — Medes; Amada (Assyr), Medai (Gr), Mada (Persian); Indo-European S of Caspian; Amadai in Zagros first mentioned by Shalmanezer III, c. 850, re. tribute of horses; Strong kingdom 700 bc; allied with Scythians and Cimmerians against Assyria in 631 bc, help take Nineveh 612 bc; absorbed by Persia. ///

Tiras — Thuras, Thor, Thracians (Gr); Etruscans; Troy, Taurus mountains; Turusha (Eg); 1st ref by Merenptah 8th / ≡13th cent. bc, invading Syria and Egypt from north; in Aegean, Tyrsenoi (Gr), pirates, drunken, "ruddy and blue-eyed". ///

Magog — Sythians (Jos.) N & E of Caspian; Amarana tablets speak of Gagaia; assimilated by Scythians (Gomer); invaded Palestine 7th cent. ///

-----[[[Magog-Scythians (early Irish Celts) ->

Goths ->

Irish Royalty = Magog-Scythian/Goths:

Fathochta -> Partholan (c. 1400's bc) -> four sons:

Baath, Geninsa Farsa, Niul, Gadelas (Gaels) -> 5 genera­tions to Heber (Heberia), 10 generations to -> Gallamh:

Jobhath -> Fraimaint -> Easru -> Sru, 4 generations to -> Nemedius-Macha (??c. 1200 bc) -> Stairn 9 generations to Dela -> five sons.]]]-----

Tubal — Tabali (first mention by T-P I, c. 1100 bc), in Tabal; Iberians in Georgia (Jos.), Tblisis is modern capitol; next to Togar­mah (Assyrian Tegarama); migrated across Caucuses, NE, river Tobol, Tobolsk; near Cilicia; Ashurbanipal received tribute of "great horses" (1K 10:28). ///

MeshechMushki (As), Moschi (Gr); paired with Tubal; settled in E Phrygia; T-P I, Mus-ka-a-ia army of 20,000; Tukulti-Ninurta II and Ashur­nasirpal II, Shalman­ezer. III; overran Hittites c. 700 / ≡1200 bc; Moscow; ancient city "among them" called Mazaca; [Jose­phus lists as Cappadocians, but he mistakes Japhetic "Meshech" for Semitic "Mash", also called "Meshech" (1 Chr)] ->




Javan — Iawan (Heb name for Ionians, Greeks), Iawones (Ionians, Homer), Iamanu (Assyr, sea battle Sargon II: he refers to them "in the midst of the sea"); Yauna (Persian); noted by Heb for trade ->

Elishah — Aeolians; Hellen (Greece), Alasiya (Hittite), A-re-sa (Eg), Alasiya (Amarna), Elysian Fields, Elis and Elissus cities named for him; usually assoc by Heb with word for "coasts or islands", specifically Gr colonies of S Italy and Sicily; assoc with purple dye (Ezek 27:7); assoc with Carthage, as founded by Alissa, prince of Tyre. ///

Tarshish — Tartesis in S Spain by Gibraltar, assoc with silver, tin, iron, lead by Strabo and Diodorus; "tarshish" means "smelting plant"; Mediterranean is "Sea of Tarshish"; Paul's Tarsus; name of Cilicia. ///

Kittim — Cethima, Cyprus (Jos.); Macedonians (1Mac 1:1), Romans (Dn 11:30); enemies of Israel (Qumran's Habakkuk Commentary); late generic for "islands"; city Kition Kt or Kty (Phoen.) capital of Cyprus. ///

Dodanim — (Gen 10:4; Rodanim 1Chr 1:7); Danumim of Cilicia (Phoen Karatepe Inscription); Drdny (Eg) allies of Hittites at Kadesh; Dardanians of Troy; Rodanim perhaps of Rhodes. ///

pagan sources: [Javan ->

(gap . . .) Erectonius (apparently time of Exodus) -> Tros (Troy, invaded and gave city its name, c. 1300's?, Troy VI?) -> Asaracus -> Capen -> Anchises -> Aeneas -> Ascanius -> Silvius -> Brutus (to Britain, 1100's bc??).

Iobaath -> Baath -> Izrau (contemporary of Peleg) -> Ezra (re. Magog, Celt/Irish contemporaries of cousins with same names. Izrau is fifth gen. born after Flood, at time of Babel) -> Rea; 11 more generations -> Alanus (contemporary of Moses, Germanic languag­es) ->:

Hessitio ->

Franks ///

Romans ///

Britons ///

Albans ///

Armenon (apparently c. Exodus) ->


Valagoths ///

Gepids ///

Burgundians ///

Lombards ///

Negue ->

Vandals ///

Saxons ///

Bavarians ///

Thuringians] ///

Norse and Anglo-Saxon Royal Houses

Sceaf (record says he was born on the "Ark", so cannot be Biblical Japheth, who was born 100 years before the Flood) -> Begwig (not Javan). Sceaf is not Japheth and Begwig is not Javan but rather, presumably, descendants. Counting from the Flood forward, the 17th genera­tion, of Wodan, is precisely the generation of the Exodus. But counting back from the known dates of the Dark Ages, Wodan lived c. 200 ad. 17th gen. before 200 ad is c. 500 bc — some con­nection with the end of the Neo-Babylonian empire?

G. Javan . . .

missing generations until c. 500 bc:

Sceaf -> Begwig: ->

Hwala (c. 400 bc?) -> Hrathra -> Itermon -> Heremod -> Scealdwea -> Beaw -> Taetwa: ->

Geat (c. 20 bc?) -> Godwulf -> Fodepald -> Fin -> Frithuwulf -> Frea­wine -> Frealaf ->

Frithuwald: -->

Woden (c. 200 ad, 17th generation after Sceaf) ->

Skjolr, 4 generations to -> Ingialdr Starkadar (c. 440 ad, House of Denmark) ->

Niodr i Noatunum -> Yngvifraeyr -> Jorundr ->

(i) a daughter, Halfdan. ///

(ii)7 generations -> to Haralldr Harfagri (House of Norway, c. 560 ad). ///

Wihtlaeg (c. 20 bc?) -> Waermund -> Offa -> Angeltheow (House of Sweden, c. 100 ad) ->

Eomaer, 10 generations -> Offa II (A-S, House of Mercia). ///

Baeldaeg -> Brand, 7 genera­tions to -> Cerdic (c. 520 ad, Eliz. II's oldest British an­cestor), 13 gen­era­tions -> Alfred the Great (House of Wessex). ///

Seaxnet, 8 generations -> Sledd (c. 580 ad, House of Essex). ///

Winta, 9 generations -> Aldfrith (House of Lindsey). ///

Witta, 10 generations -> Ethelbert (House of Kent). ///

Waegdaeg, 11 generations -> Elfric (House of Northumbria). ///

Caser, 9 generations -> Redwald (died c. 616 ad) Sigbert (House of East Anglia)]. ///

So. These last two chapters have looked at race and language. National­ity is defined by three factors: language, culture and land. Without these, there is no nation. Israel remained a nation without a homeland because of its strong culture (expressed through religion) — as have the gypsies. Race is a meaningful concept only in that it describes familial traits, selected by environment and perhaps individual mating prefer­ences. Language is a fluid commod­ity, and we find that races may change one language for an­other as circumstances dictate.

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